Thursday, October 20, 2016

Playwright’s Vocabulary and Glossary.

CHARACTER:   A person in a novel, play, or movie.
A part played by an actor.   A character wants something(s).   Characters have goals and objectives:  An actor must convey these wants, goals, and objectives to the audience.
DIALOGUE:   A conversation between two or more characters as a feature of a play.   A discussion between two or more people or between groups.
CONFLICT:   An incompatibility between two or more opinions, principles, or interests.   Obstacles that get in the way of a character achieving what he or she wants.   What the characters struggle against.
SCENE:   A sequence of continuous action(s) in a play separate from another set of continuous actions.   A single situation or unit of dialogue in a play.   The pieces of scenery used in a play.
STAGE DIRECTIONS:   Messages within the play manuscript from the playwright to the actors, technicians, and others in theater telling them what to do and how to do it.
SETTING:   The place or type of surroundings where something is positioned or where  the action in a play takes place.   
BIOGRAPHY: a character’s life story that a playwright creates.
BACK STORY:   The part of the character’s life not revealed by the playwright, but can be inferred by the actor gathering his/her characters personality, character, et cetera to enhance his or her performance.
MONOLOGUE:   A long speech by one actor in a play or movie, or as part of a theatrical or broadcast program.
BEAT or PAUSE: a hesitation in a scene or dialogue, typically lasting a specified length: i.e. slight, long, a count of three, a pregnant pause, et cetera.
PLOT: the structure of a play, including exposition, rising action, climax, falling action, and denouement.   The main events of a play devised and presented by the playwright as an interrelated sequence to create the story or stories.
BLURB/EXPOSITION:   The beginning part of a plot that provides important background information.   The part of a play in which the background to the main conflict is introduced.
RISING ARCH OF THE PLOT:   The ascendant part of a plot, consisting of complications and discoveries that create conflict.
CLIMAX:   The highest point in a plot: the orgasm, so to speak.   The most intense, exciting, or important point or culmination of the action.
FALLING ACTION:   The series of events following the climax of a plot. 
DENOUEMENT: the final resolution of the conflict in a plot.   The final part of a play or narrative in which the strands of the plot are drawn together and matters are explained made clear or resolved.

Thursday, March 31, 2016

How to Write Better Lyrics in 3 Easy Steps

When it comes to songwriting, lyrics hold a tremendous amount of impact (unless you only write instrumentals… in which case, lucky you, you don’t have to worry about lyrics)

When mixing songs (across many genres), much of the focus is on getting vocals to sound great and have excellent placement in the mix. We emphasize the vocals and want them to be heard and understood. Considering that, if the lyrics are awful, it certainly can take away from an otherwise excellent song.

Lyrics are also another great avenue for expression. Music can make us feel so many things, but adding impactful lyrics on top of great beats and instrumentation can turn a song into something truly special.

Unfortunately, unless you’re a naturally gifted poet like Bob Dylan, or a lyrical wizard like 2Pac, writing lyrics can be quite challenging. So today, I’m going to offer up 3 easy steps to help you write better lyrics. When you sit down to put pen to paper… keep these steps in mind!

Step 1: Show, Don’t Tell
This piece of advice has been thrown around so much it’s almost cliche… still, I think it’s thrown around often because it’s just so fundamentally important. It’s the first step to writing any great lyric in my mind.

Don’t write something like I’m feeling lonely and missing you
Do write something like I count the minutes until I’ll see you again
The action verb (“count”) is key, and will draw your listener in and help them connect with the song. In my second example, the listener can see what’s happening, as opposed to simply being told about it. Action gets listeners more engaged with your song.

Step 2: Include Details
Think of lyrics like painting a picture, or telling someone a story. Would you tell your friends a story and leave out important facts? Would you paint a picture of a forest and leave out all the trees? Including detail is tremendously helpful when writing lyrics, and you should focus on that whenever you can. Now, you don’t need to go overboard with the detail of course, but consider these two examples:

Don’t write something like she throws the flowers on the ground, and runs into the house
Do write something like she throws the roses in the mud, and runs into the dingy foreclosure
Which picture or story is clearer in your head? If you can add times, locations, landmarks, brand names (e.g., for you country singers out there…don’t just write about a truck, write about a Chevy or something!), and more to your lyrics your listeners will be able to connect much more easily.

Step 3: Utilize Imagery
So far I’ve been listing actions and details which can beef up any lyric and make it better…but those tips are nothing without the use of powerful imagery. If you’re writing about intangible things such as love, joy, sadness, and anger… the use of imagery can be tremendously helpful. Consider something like this:

I slammed the door then clenched my fists as I stomped out to the car.
Clenched fists, slamming doors, stomping… these are all words that provide tangible imagery to convey something intangible (anger). The best songwriters are able to convey complex emotions, stories, and the like by using imagery.

This is by no means an exhaustive list of all the ways you can write better lyrics, but to me, these three steps are at the core of every great lyrical endeavor. When you sit down to write that next great song, consider these and ask yourself, “do my lyrics follow these steps?”

Saturday, June 1, 2013

Put your monologue or play on the radio FREE! Audio Streaming Opportunity  Thistle Dew Digital Radio Theatre, KTDT-DR needs Playwrights with Self - Produced Audio (.mp3) of their; One, two, and three minute monologues, and/or Ten minute two character plays, and/or Fifteen minute 3 - 5 character plays, and/or Thirty minute 2 - 5 character plays.   Gather your fellow playwrights, actors, friends, relatives, neighbors for readings.   Record them.  Submit them. THERE IS NO SUBMISSION FEE. All submissions are subject to the approval of Thomas M. Kelly,  Artistic Director, Thistle Dew Theatre and KTDT-Digital Radio. All Self - Produced Audio submissions must conform to Family Radio "Standards of Decency": and to the KTDT-DR content policies, including but not limited to the following (remembering that this is family radio); No overt perverse sexual behavior,  No bathroom humor, No foul language, No pornography, No abusive, prejudicial or disparaging language against any race or minority, No sex, child, or adult abuse. No copyrighted music, (your un-copyrighted music is permitted, see sample on blog.*) All submissions must be accompanied by script in .doc format subject to Grammarly plagiarism check.  See..... For sample format, (i.e.: introduction, credit(s), et cetera.).  visit audio streams at.........       * Submit .mp3 only (No cds) and script, to Playwright maintains full rights to their submissions except for streaming permit to KTDT-DR:  Submissions to KTDT-DR are for the sole purpose of KTDT-DR streaming. Submissions fully produced, compliant with the above content policies and ready for radio streaming, will stream for a duration of one month (30 days) FREE.  KTDT-DR blog:  

Sunday, April 21, 2013

The role of 'conflict' in your play.

Triumphant smile vs. Humiliating Defeat
Assassin/Traitor? vs. Hero?
Your play has but one character: a solo performance.  Nothing historic such as John Wilkes Booth and the morality of assassination, or Harry S. Truman on whether or not to use the atomic bomb.  It's just John Smith... alone on the stage.  What drives this character, John Smith, to tell you his story?  Is it the story of his life?  If so, what makes John Smith think that you, the Does', and the Jones' in the audience will want to sit and listen to his life story?  Does John want to tell you the inner feud he is having between his choice of automobile models he is confronted with by the lot salesman wearing peacock blue slacks with a white belt, offensively plaid sport jacket and white sneakers?  If he's performing stand up, that would be a source of comedy (or is that drama-dy?).  No.  John is going to tell you about the decision he must make before it is too late: "Should I have the open heart surgery?"  He's going to tell you whether he has the guts, whether he has the money or the deductible, whether he can endure the suffering, whether he has faith in his surgeons, but wait John hasn't told all!..... should he take an experimental pill recommended by his "second opinion" doctor?  Now!  We have dramatic 'conflict'!  But... (not to make lightly of open heart surgery), but, it's just inner conflict: it has to come out.  Enter Mary Smith, wife of John Smith.  John and Mary have discussed John's diagnosis and treatment.  Mary thinks John should have the surgery.  She thinks it's dangerous, painful and expensive, but worth every peril, pang and penny.   Yes!  More dramatic 'conflict'!  John is fearful of someone, even an experienced and knowledgeable surgeon, using a scalpel to cut open his chest and then to use a bolt cutter on his sternum to access his heart.  "It's just all to painful, perilous and pricy," says John.  "I swallow the pill with some orange juice to aide the break-up of the compound and voila!, miracle of miracles, three months later I'm walkin' around twenty years younger.  (...or not.   Ah!  More dramatic 'conflict'!)   And at one-tenth the cost and no pain."
Conflict rises with every relationship: lovers, business associates  such as competitive actors, horse races, et cetera.  Look around your life.  Husband and wife: Do they invite weird uncle Harry to John Juniors Bar Mitzvah?  Suzan turns a corner: bumps into a cop, cop arrests her for hindering an investigation.  Skip a rope: trip and fall skinning your knee, causing an infection, causing amputation, et cetera.   Brothers sharing a bicycle: Who's turn today?...  after they beat the crap out of each other and destroy the bicycle in the tumult (that's an antiquated Romney word: conflict!)?  I know this all reads rather simple, even silly, but 'little conflicts' find themselves within 'larger conflicts' whether you or your characters recognize them for what they are worth in your larger story,... or not.  You may even determine that they are ascending conflicts leading you through your character's arc.
Keep writing, but remember... "Writing is re-writing."

Sunday, April 14, 2013

Critical reading.

Today we read Brenda's first draft of her first play, "House of Cards".  She took scrupulous and copious notes.  One of the most important elements of playwriting, and there are many, is continuity;  Continuity of character traits, Continuity of geography, Continuity of reactions of characters to each other, Continuity of time, Continuity of plot, et cetera.
Does your character 'Mary' continue down the path of alcoholism, and choose to prostitute herself when she's fired from her job?  Or does she join AA and rise on her 'arc'.  Whether your characters be normal human beings (Define normal human being*, I dare ya'.) or they show traits of mental disorder, agoraphobia, Borderline Personality Disorder, Bi-polar, post traumatic stress disorder, et cetera, they must continue unless they choose, or you, as the 'boss' playwright, give them another path.  Using the aforementioned conditions can be tricky, because BPD victims can change their behavior in a heartbeat.   "How dare you leave me!  Get out!"  Alcoholics can be great actors.  Bi-polar victims alternate between mania and depression.  There are a wide range of mental disorders where your characters can find themselves, or not, and your audience is lost, wondering, and wandering, looking for the exit at intermission.
Your characters can be at home behind the counter of a diner, or in a prison cell, or in a bingo parlor.   Establish your character's geography.  When you take 'Luke' out of his 'home', say behind a skid row bar and in the next scene put him in a Hilton hotel room, find a good reason and time for the change: don't confuse your audience or you won't have them very long.
Continuity of character interaction:  'Jill' hates it when 'Jack' is kind and gentle to her one moment and in the next moment he is treating her cruelly and in-humanly and she is loving it (barring some mental disorder for both characters) the audience will be confused and out of focus.  You have lost their confidence in your ability to hold them.
If your character, in her dialogue states, "Today is Friday.  I'll see you at noon for lunch.  We'll have tuna on rye.", but the calendar on her office wall says it's Tuesday, and the clock reads one pm, you've lost your audience again.
If Henry, fourteen years old, tells Mercedes that his brother died sixty years ago in World War II, you've derailed the audience again.  How old was Henry's brother when he died of his wounds on the beaches of Iwo Jima?  How old was mama and dada when they had Henry.  Yeah, I know.  They adopted Henry.
From when will you stop with the abuse of continuity already?  And you haven't even established that I'm yiddish.  (From Brooklyn?  No, Crown Heights.)
When your publisher sends you a proof?  No.  You will still find errors in continuity... : verbs, here and there a comma, colons, pronouns, adverbs, accent grav, et cetera.
Writing is re-writing.
Keep writing!

*To be a normal human being are you devoid of one or more or all of the following; schizoid, Pyromania, psychologically imbalanced, mentally ill, Bi-polar, PTSD, et cetera?

Sunday, April 7, 2013

On character development and Lajos Egri.

Today I met with a newborn playwright.  By "newborn" I mean she has never written a play.  Prior to our meeting, I recommended she read the book I consider "The Bible" for writers, be they essayists or novelist, but most definitely for the playwright: The Art of Dramatic Writing by Lajos Egri.
"Examining a play from the inside out, Lajos Egri starts with the heart of any drama" or comedy: it's characters.  Good dramatic writing hinges on the playwright's characters and their relationships.  Together their intent is to move the story forward.  At the age of ten, Lajos wrote his first three-act play.
Like Lajos Egri, I am a firm believer in character development.  I believe that a well-defined character will, as Omar Khayyam in Poem #545,   The Moving Finger Writes; and having Having Writ,The Testament of Omar Khayyam (1907) by Khayyam, Omar/ Alexander, Louis Charles, to lead the playwright by the finger, if you will, through the story that the character wants the playwright to write.
Character development is achieved by what the character has to say, how she says it and when he speaks, or not.  What that character says or does not say will have consequences.  How that character voices his dialogue will affect other characters who in turn, because by definition, she, too, has the power and force (so she thinks) to move the finger and move on, to lead the playwright in her direction.  When and whether the playwright gives voice to a character also affects the development of other characters.  It's a game each character plays: with the playwright as the foilist, with or without the button.
Remember: Writing is Re-writing.


Sunday, March 31, 2013

Continuing the re-write

Brenda has added two new scenes to her play.  After a reading we showed her how she can expand the dialogue of her characters to reveal their arching.  In the opening scene she had one character, 'Kip', using his friends to sharpen his weak and sometimes insulting attempts at comedy, only to create doubt in their minds as to his eventual success.  By turning the tables on him in the end, they allowed him a graceful exit.  Glib and facetious humor on his part was countered with tongue-in-cheek, friendly, mischievous and playful humor.

"Do my characters have sufficient 'skin in the game'?  If they don't, there is no reason for them to exist in the little world you have created.  They serve no purpose in your play.  What compels them to live in your play?  Have you created a place for them to complete their arch?  With any luck, your life experience will allow them to lead you where they want to go.  They want you to 'advance the plot' in their direction.  This is what they want, and if they don't get what they want, there will be consequences.  Your characters are under constant pressure.  As individuals they have different goals and different ideals and their own methods to achieve those goals.
I cannot emphasize the importance of editing and re-writing your play.  Even after their work has been published, playwrights, famous as they may or not be, continue editing and re-writing their work.

"When do I get to stop re-writing?  Am I ever finished?"  Yes and No.  "Yes" it's finished when your characters tell you "Yes, I know I'm boring, but my arch is complete.  I think."  And "No" when your characters continue to say, "I wouldn't say that to her.  Given the predicament you have placed me, and I didn't really want to go there in the first place, why don't you just have me turn slowly and stare blankly into her face.  Yes!  Now I'm finished!  Wait... !  One more little tidbit.  Please?  It'll only take a moment of your time."